I've seen a lot of discrimination against women. I think one big problem is that in our society, raising children is still seen as almost entirely the woman's responsibility. Employers still assume that women are going to take more time off for family and just generally give more of themselves to the home--and less to the job.
If we had the kind of family leave available to BOTH spouses in many countries, and if it were the social norm for men to take advantage of the leave time to become more involved with their families, then I believe the situation would improve.
As for science specifically, in my limited experience (mostly in college), I've seen that women are at least as competent as men. Perhaps not as competitive. I think excessive competitiveness is a major negative in our society...but that's another topic!
Thanks for a well-written and thought-provoking article!